ICOLACE 2010 – Proceedings

International Conference On Learning And Community Enrichment

Traders Hotel Singapore

Tuesday 27 July – Thursday 29 July 2010

Day 1:  Tuesday 27 July

10.00am – 10.10am

Welcome to Singapore by Angela Lim, Master of Ceremonies and Singapore Host for ICOLACE

Welcome Speech


10.10am – 10.50am

Opening address by Chris Picone, Chairperson ICOLACE 2010

Opening Address


10.50am – 11.10am

Presentation by students from St Anthony’s Primary School, Singapore

Conference presentation


11.30am – 11.50am

Reflection, Collaboration and Imagination:

Children’s Learning of Sustainability through Creative Activities

Paramita Atmodiwirjo and Yandi Andri Yatmo



Department of Architecture, University of Indonesia


Education for sustainable development (ESD) embraces various dimensions of environment. There is a need for learning activities that could introduce children to environmental issues as interdependent and interrelated to one another. At the same time, ESD also needs to promote and develop abilities to plan actions for improving existing condition of the environment as well as for creating better future for the environment. There are various skills to be included in ESD, such as critical thinking and reflection, collaborative action and creative imagination for better environment.

This paper presents an overview of an environmental education programme that encourages primary and secondary school children to understand the comprehensiveness of our environment, as well as connections among environmental elements and issues. The objective of the programme is to introduce children to the basic concept of environmental sustainability in relationship with human needs and everyday life. The children are encouraged to learn various aspects of sustainability through creative workshop activities, in which they do creative planning exercise which involves reflection, collaboration and imagination. Reflection on the basic human needs and local resources becomes the starting point of the learning activities. Collaborative actions are encouraged in dealing with environmental issues. Careful planning of the environment and appropriate use of natural resources become the major goals of the exercise. Children are expected to understand the required balance between needs and resources as well as between natural and built environment. Imagination becomes another important aspect of the programme, which promotes children to be creative in analysing a problem and seeking for a solution. The development of this creativity-based ESD programme becomes a way towards the promotion of future generation with the vision and abilities for the better future of our environment.

Conference PowerPoint


11.50am – 12.10pm

Film as a Learning Source in Social Studies

Assist. Prof .Dr. Erdoğan Kaya and Res. Assist. Dr. Tuba Çengelci

Anadolu University, Eskisehir, Turkey


Various learning resources are used in social studies course for introducing students past, today and future with people, places and cultures. Films are important sources for social studies teachers. The purpose of this study was to determine functions of film as a learning source in social studies course from the perspective of student teachers. Participants of the study were 3rd and 4th grade student teachers enrolled in Social Studies Teacher Training Program. Focus group interview was used in the study. First group consisted of 6 student teachers from the 3rd grade, and second group had 8 student teachers from the 4th grade. Results of the study revealed that according to student teachers films are important in social studies teaching in terms of supporting knowledge and values relating content of the course. They underlined that films provide a multidimensional and enjoyable process in teaching learning process. Moreover, student teachers emphasized role of the teacher in using films effectively in the scope of social studies course.

Final paper not submitted for proceedings (Attachment 5 pending)


12.10pm – 12.30pm

Teaching Current Events in Primary Education

Ruhan Karadag

Anadolu üniversitesi


In this study, it was aimed at determining status of primary school teachers using current events in teaching learning process. Qualitative research approach was used in the study. Open ended questionnaire was applied to primary school teachers regarding benefiting current events. Data obtained from open ended questionnaire based on semi structured questions were analyzed descriptively. Results of the study showed that primary school teachers believed benefit of using current events in teaching. Teachers stated that they mostly used newspapers and television in current events teaching. Moreover teachers explained that they organized activities as question-answer, research study, discussion, and dramatizing for teaching current events. Finally, it was found that there were some problems raised from students and parents in teaching current events.

Final paper not submitted for proceedings (Attachment 6 pending)


12.30am – 12.40am

Presentation by Minh Hang from Vietnam, delegate to World Youth Congress, Turkey 2010

Conference PowerPoint  Conference Presentation



Day 2:  Wednesday 28 July


10.00am – 10.20am

An Assessment of Nature Camp as part of ESD in HEIs:  The case study of De la Salle Philippines

Jethro J. Arsenio1, 2 and Jodylyn M. Quijano-Arsenio3

1 ERMAC/ Integrated Field Laboratories, De la Salle University-Dasmariñas, Cavite

2 College of Science, De la Salle University-Dasmariñas, Cavite, Philippines

3 College of Commerce and Business Administration, University of Santo Tomas, España, Manila, Philippines


The study was conducted among college students and facilitators who joined the nature camp.  The primary objective of this paper was to examine their lifestyle towards environment and assess the effectiveness of (Ecology/Environment Camp) Ecocamp.  From the data obtained from structured questionnaire which was validated by experts and with reliability analysis of .7456, it was found out that books, media and outdoor experiences are their main sources of environmental information.  Furthermore, one way ANOVA test results at 95% level of significance revealed that students’ lifestyles have no significant difference as to gender, first-timer in Ecocamp and membership in environmental organizations.  Moreover, results show that facilitators’ lifestyle is more friendly than students towards environment.  Assessment results also showed that students learned, enjoyed and were satisfied with the four days camp.

Conference PowerPoint Conference Paper


10.20am – 10.40am

Student Leaders: Values and Challenges towards Preserving Environment

 Jethro J. Arsenio

ERMAC/ Integrated Field Laboratories, De la Salle University-Dasmariñas, Cavite

College of Science, De la Salle University-Dasmariñas, Cavite, Philippines


Using structured questionnaire and focus group discussion, it was found out that student leaders who participated in the nature camp had improved their socialization, spirituality and leadership skills after the summer nature camp. Specific outdoor and indoor activities were identified which they enjoyed most and contribute to these attributes. They also accepted the challenges to preserve the environment by pledging to share what they have learned to other student leaders in their respective campus, taking proactive role in preserving the environment and incorporating in their annual activity the importance of sustainable development.

Conference PowerPoint Conference Paper


10.45am – 11.05am

ESD in India – towards broad-based teaching, learning and evaluation of students

Marjorie Fernandes

Dept. of Economics, Janki Devi Memorial College, University of Delhi


This paper is concerned with education for sustainable development (ESD) in India in general and Delhi University in particular for promoting broad-based teaching, learning and evaluation of students.  Unlike the past when Learning to know was considered as the central pillar of education, in the 21st century, three other pillars, i.e. Learning to do, Learning to be and Learning to Live together are also considered equally significant as the foundations of education (Delors report to UNESCO from the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-first Century). A broad-based education system is one that is supported by all the above-mentioned four pillars and not just one central pillar.  Hence, one concern of the present paper relates to the implications of the four pillars of education for teaching, learning and evaluation of students.

Considering the need for sustainable development in the context of globalization in the 21st century, the present paper is also concerned with education for the promotion of sustainable development.  Although in its widest sense, sustainable development can be viewed as a process that embraces a variety of issues – e.g. environment, poverty, health, security, democracy, gender and human rights – it is the issue of environment that is predominant.  The present paper considers some aspects of sustainable development in relation to the environment and brings out the need for environment education, especially now when we are in the middle of the UN Decade of ESD covering the period 2005-2014.

It is not surprising that environment education is at present a compulsory subject at both the school and higher education (college/university) levels in India. Taking the specific example of the environment education course offered to the undergraduate students of the University of Delhi, the present paper examines the extent to which broad-based education as reflected by the process of teaching, learning and evaluation of students is being provided.

Apart from formal education based on the environment education course, the present paper is also concerned with the non-formal education that takes place when the undergraduate students participate in activities of the ‘Eco-(ecology) Clubs’ promoted by the Government of India. On the basis of the experience of such activities in some of the colleges of Delhi University, the paper comes to the conclusion that more than formal education, it is non-formal education that is contributing towards a broad-based educational system and thereby helping to fulfill the true aims of education.

Conference PowerPoint  Conference Paper


11.30am – 11.50am

Sustainable Development: Engaging Teachers And Students In Community Development In Southern Mindanao Region, Philippines

Dr Sophremiano Antipolo

College of Governance, Business and Economics (CGBE) and Mindanao Center for Policy Studies (MCPS), University of Southeastern Philippines (USEP),  Obrero Campus, Davao City, Philippines.

Dr Angelina S. Pancho

Mindanao Center for Policy Studies (MCPS)


In the early 1970s, the governments of the world, largely through the United Nations, began to convene a series of conferences which sought to trigger global inquiry into the possibilities of the human future.  The Honorable Enrique Penalosa, Secretary-General of the United Nations Conference on Human Settlements, in his  introduction of the book entitled The Home of Man by Barbara Ward (1976), recounted some of these conferences to include:  (1) The Stockholm Conference on Environment;  (2) The Bucharest on Population Growth;  (3)  The Rome on Food Security;  (4)  The Caracas on the Uses of the Sea;  (5)  The Mexico City on the Role and Status of Women;  and  (6)  The Vancouver on Human Settlements.

However, it was not until 1983 that an in-depth global expression of concern on environment and sustainable development took place when the United Nations Secretary General asked Norway’s Prime Minister – Mrs. Gro Harlem Brundtland – to organize the World Commission on Environment and Development, also popularly known as the Brundtland Commission. Environment and sustainable future became a dominant theme in development agenda since the Brundtland Commission Report entitled Our Common Future was published in April 1987 by the Oxford University Press.  Thereafter, a number of conventions, either solely devoted to the subject or at least as one of the key topical themes had been held notably: the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, the Johannesburg Summit and the Copenhagen Conference.

In the same vein, the UNESCO took a convergent move to operationalize sustainable development in the context of “education for all” grand alliance movement.   Thus, the Brundtland Commission then recommends that providing education facilities is only the beginning.  Education must be improved in quality and in relevance to local conditions. In many areas, it should be integrated with children’s or youth’s participation in farm work,  a process requiring flexibility in the school system. It should impart knowledge relevant for the proper management of local resources. Rural schools must teach about local soils, water, and the conservation of both, deforestation and how the community and the individual can reverse it.  In short, education process must span the formal-nonformal-informal continuum. Thus, education should be considered a life-long and life-wide process. When viewed this way, the development process will not ignore the needs of different ethnic groups,  minorities and tribal groups and, in the process, education will not leave them vulnerable and subject to exploitation. Their traditional rights must be recognized, local institutions protected, and local communities must be given a voice in the decisions about resource use in their area. When this is done, real empowerment and participatory development process will be sustained.

In Section 1 of this proposed Paper, we will sketch out the evolving development paradigms and highlight the “sustainable development” framework.  Following the notion of paradigm shift popularized by Thomas Kuhn (1970), we will indicate and help resolve the controversy about what constitute “growth”, “development”, or “progress”. Part of the discussion toward resolving development controversy is to outline emerging alternative paradigms which may situate humanity and polity in “introspection”.

We believe that this should apply to the self, family, organization, community, nation, and our world of nations – which should take collective action for our GREAT PLANET EARTH.

In Section 2, we will present a brief global perspective followed by a national context for the Philippines and cascading to the sub-national and local level of Southern Mindanao — a case study region for this proposed Paper.

We will detail in Section 3 some experiences in engaging the youth / students in community service. This will be done by tracing briefly the efforts of the Department of Education (DepEd) since the early 1970s by virtue of Executive Order No. 303 (Creating the Student Assistance Committee for Community Service and Reforestation) which led to the organization of Youth Community Service Clubs (YCSCs).

It would be less hypocritical to admit that there had been some weaknesses and problems encountered along the way.   Thus,  in Section 4,  we will outline some areas of concerns  needing improvement by offering proposed recommendations which can be carried-out  by the government, non-government organizations,  schools, community,  family, and the self.

Conference PowerPoint Conference Paper


11.50am – 12.10pm

Life skills intervention at high school: A needed pedagogic shift

Sangeeta Chaudhary

Department Of Human Development and Family Studies, Faculty of Family and Community Sciences, The M.S.University of Baroda,Vadodara,Gujarat, India



A project to impart life skills education to school going adolescents from economically backward tribal community was undertaken by the department of Human Development and Family Studies, Faculty of Family and Community and Family Sciences, The M.S.University of Baroda, Vadodara, India. Adolescent boys and girls face many changes and challenges during these important growing up years. It is important to equip the high school adolescents with the necessary skills (Decision making, communicating, building self-esteem, developing relationships, dealing with conflicts, problem solving, coping with stress and emotions) to adopt these changes and deal effectively with the demands and challenges of everyday life. In the school curriculum, these kinds of skills are not included, leaving a very big gap between the theory and the practical skills of life. Therefore, this project was planned and implemented for imparting life skills education to the less reached tribal adolescents of India.

The project aimed to make the adolescent boys and girls aware about themselves, their abilities and short comings and help them to overcome those short comings. The project activities were planned so as to equip the economically backward tribal adolescents with necessary skills to broaden their horizon, understand and adopt those the traditional beliefs which are rational and practical and become gender sensitive so as to be a part of the national development through building a better society. This project made an effort to develop an understanding of quality lifestyle amongst the tribal adolescents.

The objectivesof the project were:

i.        Make adolescent boys and girls aware of their capacities and further their development.

ii.        Create an understanding about gender discrimination which hinders individual development.

iii.        Provide training for effective communication for self growth and development.

Conference PowerPoint Conference Paper


12.10pm – 12.30pm

Social Development and the UN Millennium Development Goals: Best Practices and Lessons Learned from a Philippine University

Marco Polo

De La Salle University-Dasmariñas, Philippines


This paper shall discuss the experiences of the author in integrating the concepts of social development and the United Nations Millennium Development Goals in the course curriculum of a subject called Introduction to Development Communication. The subject is taught to senior Bachelor of Arts in Communication students at the De La Salle University-Dasmariñas in Cavite a province located south of the capital Manila.

Highlights of the paper shall include the course content, techniques and strategies used to raise awareness among the students about social development and the UN MDGs, pedagogical principles and approaches on social development from the perspective of the educational institution, critical and creative outputs of the student’s interpretations of social development and the UN MDGs (i.e. posters, documentary, music videos, original song) and the popularization of the UN MDGs and social development issues on campus through various information and education campaigns that culminate in the conduct of a public forum/exhibit. Other activities that promote the values of social development as well as the UN MDGs are discussed including doing volunteer work and the submission of a social enterprise proposal for possible funding and implementation in a partner/chosen community. The recommendations on how to replicate the approach in other courses as a subject or even as a field of study are explained.

The case that shall be presented highlights the importance of schools in guiding students to become responsible and responsive citizens. It also shows that given the proper tools and guidance, students can be empowered to become catalysts for social transformation.

“Yes, reading and math are important. But what matters most is what kinds of human beings are reading the books and doing the math.” (Scherer, 2009)

Conference PowerPoint


2.30pm – 2.50pm

Gender and Classroom Size Differences in Classroom Climate and Deviant Behavior: A Study of Elementary School Pupils in Central Taiwan

Chia-Hsun Chiang

Elementary School Teacher, Central Taiwan

Wan-Chen Hsu

Doctoral student, Graduate Institute of Adult Education, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Taiwan


The main purpose of this study was to investigate gender and classroom size differences in classroom climate and deviant behavior among elementary school students. The survey data were collected from 1,007 sixth grade students of elementary schools in Changhua County of central Taiwan. The descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA, and one-way MANOVA were used to analyze the data. Among four classroom climate dimensions, sixth grade students perceived the level of teacher-student relationships was the most positive and the level of classroom order was the least positive. Each dimension of deviant behaviors was slight. In peer relationship and teacher-student relationship dimensions, female students were more positive than male ones. In addition, there were classroom size differences in classroom climate. In teacher-student relationship dimension, it was more positive in medium classroom size than in other classroom size groups. There were gender differences in each dimension of deviant behaviors; female students got more emotional disturbances while male students showed more disobediences and misbehaviors.

Conference PowerPoint Conference Paper


2.50pm – 3.10pm

Implication of Gender and Perceived Self-Competence on Advanced Study Aspiration among Graduated University Students in Taiwan

Chia-Hsun Chiang

Elementary School Teacher, Central Taiwan

Wan-Chen Hsu

Doctoral student, Graduate Institute of Adult Education, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Taiwan


The main purpose of this study was to investigate the implication of gender and perception of self-competence on educational aspiration among graduated university students. In this paper, we first made a careful review of relevant literature, designed adequate variables measurement and statistical technique, and then used “survey research data archive (SRDA)” to explore the relationships between gender, perception self-competence, and educational aspirations. The survey data were retrieved from SRDA including 11,812 effective samples. The t-test, multi-serial correlation, test of homogeneity of proportions, and discriminant analysis were used to analyze the data. The empirical results of the study indicated that there were gender differences in perception of self-competence and male students were higher than female ones. In addition, there were significant relationships between gender and educational aspiration. Furthermore, male students were more likely to take advanced study compared to female ones, and the students who got higher scores in perception of self-competence tended to take advanced study.

Conference PowerPoint Conference Paper


3.10pm – 3.30pm

Cognitive Power and Outstanding Learning

Professor A Malik

Professor of Cognitive Learnability, Sudan Scientists Organisation, Sudan


The relation between Cognitive Power and Outstanding Learning is that Outstanding Learning is totally based on the existence of awareness and creative vision, which by definition created by Cognitive Power. This clarifies how Education is initially projected in personal characteristics to explain the endorsement of self-centred profile for the new generations if appropriateness of Education is to be tested. Researchers need to analyse why is it the case in the young generations; where many think they are fully right and the elder generation is totally wrong as a result of the prejudiced concept of no way to communicate with… this kind of  Stereotyped Hasty Thinking SHT results two deficiencies: the 1st is the short sighted perspective of personal development and the 2nd is the weak link with the community to the extent that not to care for collectivism and overall threats or loss if it turns to happen.

So using Cognitive Learnability; I am quite interested in presentation that focuses on working towards long-term commitment towards sustainability. By securing the following Educational non-avoidable objectives:

  1. Good analysis for the reasons behind being capsulated and why not to have future strategic planning.
  2. Building positive ambitious vision to help the three interrelated circles:  A. Individual. B. Family system C. Local Community work smoothly together throughout global well-designed Educational System.

This would definitely help school/university/Educational organisation sets up a consistent program; where the staff members are the safeguard for overall community sustainable development.

Conference PowerPoint


Day 3:  Thursday 29 July


10.00am – 10.20am

A Futures Perspective of the role of Higher Education in Education for Sustainable Development and Life-wide Learning

Khalid Mumtaz

Bahria University, Islamabad


Society today has gone through a significant change in twentieth century in terms of its political, legislative, religious, monetary, and educational institutions. This change has also influenced the systems of social class, creed, familiar values and occupational specializations. These institutions have significant role in shaping our understanding and perspectives. Yet, of all the institutions we are born into, directed by and conditioned upon, there is no system, taken for granted and misunderstood as the educational system. Taking on nearly in religious proportion, the established academic and educational practices are one of the most unquestioned forms of faith. Acquiring basic knowledge is the segment of education which has not been refuted much among the civilizations across the globe in their known history. But the higher education, which once was associated with the luxury of the elite, has now been accessed at a wider scale by various segments and classes of society. Increased in competitiveness of society has pushed the individuals to look for life wide learning opportunities. This, coupled with the urge of society for sustainable solutions to the current problems, has put the higher education system to answering podium, for a basic question: what role higher education can play for sustainable development and life wide learning of individuals and society? This paper is an attempt to establish links between the past and present of the higher education practices, specifically focusing on the future perspective to seek the answer for the question under consideration.

Presenter unable to attend (Attachment 17 pending)


10.20am – 10.40am

The Power of online learning –Can it be a boon for Ghana. 

Eva Ebenezer

Lecturer, Pentecost University College, Ghana


The usage of the internet has become very common in Africa for over two decades now and is fast catching up with its European counterparts. Most educational organisations are realizing the growing need for integrating the internet into their core services since the urban rural divide in literacy level is obvious and wide.  Very few of the educational institutions in Ghana have realized how the internet can help them in their activities with the aid of e-learning. In developed countries and developing countries e-learning is well utilised which lowers the urban rural divide in literacy level. It reduces transactional costs and opens up a new dimension in knowledge sharing. It is rather unfortunate that Africa has failed to seize these opportunities and now has to play catch up.  Recently, there have been some steps taken by a few new educational institutions in Ghana to exploit this potential the e-learning has to offer. Presently, there is the need to enact legislation to enable and promote the adoption of e-learning, though it is quite difficult to accomplish this fully due to economic and resource constraints. To achieve this objective considering Ghana’s level in information communication and technology, there must be a careful sequence and prioritization of critical legal steps, centered on electronic contracts and signatures.  E-learning refers to all organized learning and activities under the influence of an educational organization that are carried out with the help of information and communications technologies. E-learning, like any organized educational activity is a very complex undertaking. Many organizations seeking to engage in e-learning activities quite often overlook the fact that its successful deployment requires the same level of diligence and rigor in its planning, management and implementation that is necessary in setting up conventional education systems. In fact, e-learning has added elements such as the technology infrastructure that require attention far beyond that necessary in conventional educational settings.  This paper seeks to assess the requirements and usage of e-learning in Ghana. The empirical investigation is done using structured interviews, survey questionnaires and observation. Based on the information gathered, quantitative and qualitative analysis are carried out on the findings, a proposal is subsequently advanced to enhance the lapses determined from the findings. Furthermore, literature is reviewed to determine forms of e-learning, reasons for need for e-learning and its effects on Economic development with particular attention to Ghana.

Conference PowerPoint


10.45am – 11.05am

Globalization and Localization In The 21st Century:  The Case of Mindanao Regions in the Philippines

Sophrmiano Antipolo

College of Governance, Business and Economics (CGBE) and Mindanao Center for Policy Studies (MCPS), University of Southeastern Philippines (USEP),  Obrero Campus, Davao City, Philippines.


Globalization and localization: to what extent will these paradoxical and co-existing forces determine the course of rural, urban and regional development planning?  And what are the challenges they pose upon the decentralized cities in the 21st century? Globalization has emerged as one of the most powerful phenomena shaping our socio-economic environment.  Indeed, in this 21st century, matters concerning globalization present new challenges for rural, urban and regional planners throughout the world.  Increasing globalization of economic activities necessitates a critical re-evaluation of existing urban and regional development strategies which seek to improve the quality of life and to reduce spatial inequalities.

In the Philippines, with the on-going implementation of decentralization through the 1991 Local Government Code, the central challenge becomes twofold: facing global competition and improving local governance.  This is because globalization is accompanied with localization and, in the process, tends to erode the regulatory power of nation-states.   For one, globalization is closely related to the localization strategy of transnational corporations (TNCs) for their business activities.  Under these circumstances, the general propensity of TNCs is to integrate their business activities with the local economic environment where their establishments are located.   Globalization and localization, then, signal the need to emphasize the active role of spatial planning in determining regional and economic development policies and strategies.  In this context, the performance of rural, urban and regional economies are largely dependent upon the capacity and capability of local government units.

In this proposed second Paper, I will attempt to examine and demonstrate how the cities under the decentralized form of governance can gear towards the challenges of globalization and localization, using the case of Mindanao Regions in the Philippines.  In particular, the Paper will be organized in seven parts.  Part 1 will begin with a review of the spatial implications of globalization in order to put into context the more specific challenges for rural, urban and regional planning.  Part 2 will present a reconciliation of the issue surrounding “balanced growth” and “inequality”.  Part 3 will provide a brief elucidation on how decentralization can be pursued by strengthening urban-rural linkages. Part 4 will review the current Medium-Term Philippine Development Plan to provide a macro-perspective concerning the country’s response to the challenges of globalization.   Part 5 will discuss the spatial and urban development patterns of the Philippines “before” and “during” the 20th century to provide some reference points for examining the potentials of Mindanao regions. Part 6 will demonstrate how the decentralized cities in the Mindanao Regions are responding towards the challenges of globalization and localization in the 21st century.    Part 7 will conclude the paper.

Conference PowerPoint Conference Paper


Virtual presentations

The missing links between knowledge creation in schools and the lifewide formation of  youth towards personal and community enrichment.

Abdulkadir M.S1, Jayum A A*1, Zaid A.B1 and Asnarulkhadi A. S. (2)

(1) Department of Government and Civilization Studies

(2) Department of Social and Development Science, Faculty of Human Ecology, Universiti Putra Malaysia


It need not be emphasized that the wealth of nations depends greatly on the nation’s ability to effectively utilize and maximize benefits from its human resources (Yesufu, 2000, p.212). Youths undoubtedly constitute an appreciable proportion of the labour force, which makes up our human resources. However, Aliyu and Abdulkadir (2009) observed that the stack, yet pathetic reality confronting most developing nations especially the youths and the urban – rural poor in our societies are not only unfortunate, but a manifestation of the failure of public system. They further argued that this is reflected in government’s inability to provide the necessary infrastructure and impetus to channel youth’s energy to productive activities rather than wallowing in abject poverty and chronic unemployment.   It is against this background that youths are confronted with some fundamental questions such as:  What would they do or be engaged in after graduation from schools? What skills do they require to be gainfully employed?  How can they move forward and which direction should they choose? Should they decide to be self-employed, how can theyassess funds and other requirement of their engagement? Addressing these questions (as attempted in the later part of this article) becomes necessary, considering that the government could not see to the effective implementation of various intervention policies introduced despite their supposed benefits. Aminu and Ibrahim (2008) observed in respect of one of such intervention policies that:

Despite having as its cardinal objectives the upliftment of the teaming poor and vulnerable groups out of poverty  in many parts of the world, the National Economic Empowerment Development Strategy (NEEDS) of nations  has no corresponding results, as, unemployment, lack of access to credit by the poor, youth despair, poor water supply, poor education,  dominates the  poor and vulnerable groups.

This article has attempted to examine the concept of education, its purpose and relevance to youths as well as its effect on their life after leaving school. How does it equip them or fail to equip them to blend with the larger society and live a normal life? The main thrust of this article is to examine the challenges and prospects of the youth in sustainable employment towards community enrichment. To identify the missing links between knowledge creation and the application of skills in wide life style of the modern youth. The conclusion is drawn on the premise of providing some plausible suggestions that would improve the life of the modern youth in life after school, to live a self-sustained and independent lifestyle.

Conference Paper


Community Participation to Reduce Accumulation of Plastic Bags (Case Study in Al-Khums  city , Libya)

By Ir Agus Hadiyarto,M. Dra. Hartuti Purnaweni and Naser Ali Ahmed Alhderi.

Environmental Science Study Program Post Graduate Diponegoro Universitas ,2010


Plastic bags are one of the most common items used by people around the world.Shoppers worldwide are using around 500 billion to 1 trillion plastic bags per year. Plastic bags however, are made from oil. The carbon footprint of plastic (LDPE or PET, polyethylene) is about 6 kg CO2 per kg of plastic. This study was done to determine plastic bags use in the Al-khums City, to know the accumulation of plastic bags waste, the awareness of the people about the accumulation of plastic bags waste in the environment, and how to minimize plastic bags use by the people who live in Al-khums City. The Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) was used in this research to explain the relation between personal, behavior and environment factors of the community in Al-khums City in relation to the issue. In total, the 73,520 families who live there consumed 238,204,800 of plastic bags in one year. There were 18,132,470 plastic bags disposed by shop owners and 120,793,360 plastic bags disposed by the customers and public in one year. There was a strong awareness about the negative effects caused by plastic bags to the environment. Albeit shop owners, customers and public of the city were committed and willing to participate in minimizing the use of plastic bags, no concrete step has been taken because no alternative was available. This study wants to suggest that the government take a bigger role in regulating the production of plastic bags and provide people with alternatives such as biodegradable shopping bags..

Conference PowerPoint Conference Paper